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Recommended books. Same-sex marriage. Sponsored link. These are sometimes called "Catholic Epistles. The general epistles were apparently letters to churches and individuals written to handle specific topics. They usually started with a salutation, " followed often by the main body of the letter A common theme running through many of the epistles was an attack on Gnostic Christians. During the early years of the Christian movement, there were a number of divisions within the faith. The main ones were:.

Other themes common to many epistles are: love within the Christian community, hospitality to strangers, and exhibiting godly behavior. Interpretations differ:.

Site Menu. Search website. True religion? Seasonal events Science vs. The main ones were: the Jewish Christians , a reform movement within Judaism, centered in Jerusalem, headed by James, the brother of Jesus, with Jesus' surviving disciples playing influential roles. They lived throughout the Roman empire, in congregations founded mainly by Paul. Estimated dates of composition and author identity: Interpretations differ: Conservative Protestants typically believe in the inerrancy of all of the books in the Bible.

Thus, they believe that the authors, as identified in most of the Epistles, were the actual writers. Liberal Christians typically believe that those Epistles whose approximate dates can be estimated were written after the destruction of the temple in 70 CE, by unknown persons.


By that time, various segments of the early Christian movement had introduced new beliefs that were not present in primitive Christianity as taught by Jesus of Nazareth and Paul. They contain a lot of information about how beliefs developed within the church in the later 1 st century and first half of the 2 nd century CE. Roman Catholic scholars: Fr. Raymond E. Brown, is a member of the Vatican's Roman Pontifical Biblical Commission , and was described by Time magazine as " probably the premier Catholic scripture scholar in the U.

It was only in the second century CE that this epistle became interpreted as being directed at Hebrews. That belief also arose in the second century. Before 64 to after CE.

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Messianic Jewish Epistles: Hebrews, James, First Peter, Second Peter, Jude

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Jude 4, we read that admission has been secretly gained by ungodly persons who deny our only Master or Lord, Kurios, in 2nd Peter , false teachers, spoken of here as if it was future tense. Yet another reason for taking Peter as being later, but which he fears and or prophesized will take this form and therefore require these sharp admonitions. Thus still in verse 1, he speaks of false teachers who will secretly bring in heresies, even denying the Master, again, the Kurios. Or comparing Jude 6 and 2nd Peter , a text that we referred to when we tried to make some sense of 1st Peter , preaching to the spirits in prison, the angels that did not keep their own position and then in the nether gloom until judgement.

As we move to the next PowerPoint slide, just as Sodom and Gomorra acted immorally, serves an example Jude 7 to those who are ungodly. Here we have a more paradigmatic illustration that was reused a number of times in Jewish literature throughout history. There are shorter sequences that do remain in chronological order but even then countless examples of wicked people in between that could have been chosen, which means that the particular collection of analogies here was by no means dictated by the Hebrew Scriptures in any way.

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Those who indulge in lust of passion will despise authority and are not afraid to revile the glorious ones whereas angels do not. On the final PowerPoint slide in this Triade of illustrations, each with two texts per screen, we see Jude 10 compared and contrasted with 2nd Peter Again, speaking of the false teachers, doing by those things that they know by instinct as irrational animals do, they are destroyed.

Blemishes waterless clouds, carried along by winds for whom the nether gloom of darkness have been reserved forever. And 2nd Peter 2 blemishes by the way of Balaam, waterless springs and mist driven by storms for those the nether gloom of darkness have been reserved.

What makes Jude a valuable book in the Canon? What are some key observations that we should come away with from this short one chapter document? Does it really matter that much if it remains one of the forgotten books in the back of the New Testament? What we conceive from what we have just read, in addition to the literary question that introductory surveys regularly discuss that 2nd Peter probably depends on Jude.

We have a tirade of sorts, particularly in these sections where the two letters run so closely parallel, can be identified as both add homonym Latin — to the person and as ad hoc which is to say that instead of given us details as to the contents of the false teachings, we can at least in the case of 2nd Peter, make some plausible inferences, Jude becomes very difficult to determine what the theology was that had gone on with these teachers.

What does become clear in both documents is the sexual immorality and other forms of wanton disregard for authority and conventional social and ethical norms such that we may assume that these false teachers are promoting a form of libertine behavior, that is taking liberties and exercising their freedoms supposedly in Christ to not merely no longer be under the Law of Moses, interpreted without respect to its fulfillment in Christ but going far beyond this into not being under any ethical norms except perhaps those that they have chosen to support.

They will not tolerate any philosophies or religions or world views that are not relativistic or pluralistic and thus their own supposed world views contradict themselves and collapse in on themselves and create what philosophers call a self-defeating argument. Nevertheless, they are not to be tolerant in the sense of claiming that logically, contradictory world views can somehow simultaneously be true; that doctrine or morality that flatly goes against the Christian doctrine of Scripture can be acceptable.

We may need to, not least for the sake of providing a witness for the Gospel, tolerate and not try to overthrow or legislate against or refuse an audience in a public area. In that sense, we must create limits to what we tolerate. A fourth comment, under our heading, Key Observations from Jude, which intrigues almost every reader of this little epistle, involves references to the intertestamental literature; the assumption of Moses, references and brief description in our textbook.

In the episode Michal Gently rebutting the devil, verse 9 and then again in verse 14, the more extensive direct quote from 1st Enoch, the seventh from Adam. This does use of two pseudo-ethnographical documents, not apocryphal but pseudo-ethnographical, that is canonized by no one, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Christian, ever in the history of Judaism or Christianity, somehow means that Jude thought that these two documents were in the Jewish or Christian canon or that they should have been in or that they were inspired or inerrant.

None of these coronaries often put forward, logically follow any more than it would be true that when Paul in Mars Hill speech in Acts or in his writing to Titus quotes Greek poets and philosophers, believed that their writings were inspired, or inherent or canonical or ought to be treated as such. This was no more than any Christian speaker or preacher of any era quoting approvingly non-canonical texts from other Christian writers or Jewish writers or writers of no religions or other religions; all this is implied in the vast majority of such situations is that a particular excerpt or quotation or concept or piece of historical fiction, an illustration or an analogy makes a theological point in which the speaker or writer agrees and finds it useful for him or herself and being useful for his or her audience also.

What then, about the language in verse 14 of prophesizing? Early Christians believed that many Christians spoke prophesy and occasionally believed that non-Christians unwittingly spoke prophesy such as Caiaphas the high priest when he prophesized that it was better for one man rather than the whole nation to die. So there is no reason to see Jude necessarily implying anything stronger than that here.

He presumably does believe that the statement quotes are true; the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of holy ones to judge everyone, particularly the ungodly who have rebelled against him, spoken against him. Zechariah says something very much like this and with a Christian overlay where the Lord as Christ in his second coming is coming with his holy angels, decked out for battle to judge those who are ungodly on the earth. This little excerpt from this intertestamental document is profoundly true. This is juxtaposed by a comparison with unbelieving Jews who have not trusted Jesus as the Messiah of Israel in verses 7—8.

THE MESSIANIC JEWISH EPISTLES: Ariel's Bible Commentary on Hebrews, James, I & II Peter, Jude

Thus, these four descriptives in verse 9 are not being transposed upon the Church, instead they are reiterated to Jewish believers within the Church by the apostle to the circumcised. It is important to recognize that the contrast Peter makes here is not between the Church and Israel, or between believers and non-believers, or between unbelieving Jews and believing Gentiles.

Rather, the contrast here is between the Remnant and the Non-Remnant of Israel. Peter further explains his point as he moves to verse 10 where he refers to the Old Testament prophet Hosea. Since Hosea is a type of God in that book, the Lord is saying that not all of the children of Israel are His offspring. This sounds like what Peter is saying in of Jewish believers of his day. Again, Fruchtenbaum explains:. However, in the future, when Israel undergoes a national salvation, they will again experientially become my people.

While much more could be said about 1 Peter 2, it is abundantly clear that the passage does not support any form of replacement theology. God will indeed keep all His promises to Israel even though during the Church age He is combining elect Jews and Gentiles into a single co-equal body Eph. If the New Testament actually taught supersessionism or replacement theology there would need to be a clear statement of just such a doctrine.

However, no clear teaching of this nature appears, in spite of the many inferences by interpreters. In addition, the Apostle Paul teaches just the opposite in Romans 9— In spite of the many attributes, characteristics, privileges and prerogatives of the latter which are applied to the former, the Church is not called Israel in the NT. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, , p.