They embrace technology. They think in terms of large-scale, sustainable systems. You find them especially in the emerging global cities of the world. Here Europe holds a powerful trump card, with cities that are rich in intellectual life and knowledge resources. Without question, the issues we face today are challenging, but they are solvable. I am optimistic — not because I expect human nature to change, but because we now have at our disposal an enormous new natural resource: a rising tide of data that enables us to see and understand our world as never before.
What the discovery of the Western hemisphere was to the 15th century, the discovery of steam power to the 18th century and the discovery of electricity to the 19th century, the explosion of data will be to the 21st. Its economic and societal value is almost incalculable. If we seize upon this new resource, I believe future historians will look back on this moment not as a shift to lower expectations and growing gaps between haves and have-nots, but as the dawn of a new golden age of innovation, a time of widely shared economic growth and of global citizenship.
Samuel J. Palmisano is the chairman of IBM. Tell us what you think. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles. Newsletter Sign Up Continue reading the main story Please verify you're not a robot by clicking the box. Invalid email address. Please re-enter.
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Multilateral free trade agreements or more advanced agreements. Bilateral free trade agreements advanced agreements.
No free trade agreements , but World Trade Organization members. Members, dually represented with the European Union. Main article: Globalization. Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime submitted. Economics: Principles in Action. Routledge, Forms of economic integration. Preferential trading area Free-trade area Economic partnership Passport-free zone Single market. Customs union Monetary union Customs and monetary union Economic and monetary union Complete economic integration.
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Part of a series on. Economic integration Preferential trading area Free trade area Customs union Single market Economic union Monetary union Fiscal union Customs and monetary union Economic and monetary union. Theory Comparative advantage Competitive advantage Heckscher—Ohlin model New trade theory Economic geography Intra-industry trade Gravity model of trade Ricardian trade theories Balassa—Samuelson effect Linder hypothesis Leontief paradox Lerner symmetry theorem Terms of trade.
Preferential trade agreement. Free trade agreement. Economic partnership. Common market. Monetary union. Customs union. Customs and monetary union.
Economic union. Economic and monetary union.