Elder, into a luxury "floating university," populated by some of America's best and brightest scientists and writers, including John Muir. Those aboard encountered a land of immeasurable beauty and impending environmental calamity. Muir made many friendships on the vessel, and would later write stories about this trip, about the people on board, and the Natives. See entries for and below for narratives of retracing of this famous expedition.
Leads first annual Sierra Club trip to the mountains, guiding nearly Sierra Club members around Yosemite for a month. Muir's good friend, the geologist Joseph Le Conte , dies on the Yosemite outing. Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, dies. Intensifies campaign to return Yosemite Valley back to federal control April 21 : John Muir turns 67 years old With William Colby, Muir actively lobbies in Sacramento for state legislation to return Yosemite Valley back to federal control Daughter Helen is ill; she travels with Muir to Arizona for recovery The Mazamas and the Sierra Club hold a joint summer outing and climb of Mt.
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Steven Mather , later the first director of the National Park Service, is on this outing. Colby were also members of the Mazamas which established friendships that later provided support for Muir's efforts to protect Hetch Hetchy. The Muir home in Martinez is slightly damaged. The Sierra Club submits a resolution to the U.
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Secretary of the Interior opposing the damming of Hetch Hetchy Valley. Congressman Muir dictates his autobiography, as a guest of Edward H. Muir continues the battle for Hetch Hetchy. Funk Muir spends several months writing and visiting his daughter and friends in Los Angeles Muir takes the Osborn family on a trip to Yosemite, and J. Hooker on a short trip to the Grand Canyon. Back home in Martinez, Muir wrote to a friend on December 17, that "I've been reading old musty dusty Yosemite Notes until I'm tired and blinky blind, trying to arrange them in something like lateral, medial, and terminal moraines on my den floor.
I never imagined I had accumulated so vast a number I thought that in a quiet day or two I might select all that would be required for a [Yosemite] guidebook; but the stuff seems enough for a score of big jungle books, and it's very hard, I find, to steer through on anything like a steady course in reasonable time. June 21 : Muir is awarded an honorary Litt. October : Explores forests of Araucaria braziliensis in southern Brazil. November : Travels to Chile; explores forests of the rare monkey-puzzle tree, Araucaria imbricata now A.
January 20 : Studies Baobab trees near Victoria Falls. March 27 : Arrives in New York after his thirty-week, 40, mile-long voyage. April 21 : John Muir turns 74 years old Muir continues the fight against the destruction of wilderness by lumber, mining, and power barons, including the plan to inundate Hetch Hetchy Valley. Muir joins the Sierra Club's annual summer Outing to the Kern River Canyon country, where the group meets a family outing led by Stephen Mather , who later became the first director of the National Park Service.
Muir's book The Yosemite is published. On the way to Island Park, Muir visited the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City where he heard "memorable organ music," especially "Nearer, my God to Thee," which he described as "so devout, so sweet, so whispering low. Judge Claire Tappaan presided at dedication ceremonies. A Sequoia tree sapling was planted as part of the ceremony. This tree is still growing on the site, lthough the building was destroyed by a flood in For 25 years this "mountain home of the Sierra Club" was a center of the southern California chapter activities, ranging from hikes to parties of various sorts.
Azuma later becomes a noted Japanese conservationist and mountaineer, known as "The John Muir of Japan. Hall young publishes Alaska Days with John Muir in which he recounts two journeys of discovery taken in company with Muir in and Young describes Muir's ability to "slide" up glaciers, the broad Scotch he used when he was enjoying himself, and his natural affinity for Indian wisdom and theistic religion.
Here too, is the first mention of Muir's special insight with Young's dog, Stickeen. Congress establishes the U. National Park Service, fulfilling one of Muir's dreams. Sierra Club member Stephen Mather becomes its first Director. Mary H. Wade publishes Pilgrims of To-day a book of short biographies for young people of "Great Americans" who were emigrants from "foreign lands," which begins with a chapter about John Muir. Mary R. Muir Knoll was officially dedicated with a ceremony on June 18, Charles H. Vilas delivered the dedication address. Judge Milton S.
Griswold who as a classmate had given Muir his first lesson in botany under a black locust at the site and Muir's North Hall roommate, Charles E. Vroman, also spoke. The tree on the campus of the University of Wisconsink, where John Muir first had his ephiphany about the orderliness of botany, is officially designated as the "Muir Locust. Moran attributes his interest in conservation to his meeting with Muir.
Hall Young of Alaska The Autobiography of S. Hall Young is published, which recounts an accidental meeting with his old friend John Muir when boarding the steamer to Alaska at Seattle in when Muir was on his sixth trip to Alaska with Charles S. Sargent and William M. Today it is the only building conceived and erected by the Sierra Club to honor its first President and co-founder, John Muir, since the Angeles Chapter's Muir Lodge in the San Gabriel Mountains burned down many years ago.
Designed by architect Henry F. Withe, the brick structure had an entry built with Indiana limestone. They are planting a tree for old John Muir, Muir of the trees, Muir of the mountains, Planting it up where Joaquin stood Full in the face of the Western breeze. May they plant it well in the hope that it grows, set it out on The hill's high rim, and let it speak to passing men, "All of the Trees Remember him.
Roosevelt is elected President of the U. Lindsley writes Recollections of John Muir, off-site link recalling visiting John Muir in his room on the University of Wisconsin campus in Madison in the early s. She also briefly recalls a visit he made to Madison in , and his opinion of receiving an honorary degree from an East Coast university. Today only the dedication Sequoia tree, grown to 50 feet in height, remains on the site, a short walk from the busy suburb of Sierra Madre. Historical Context Franklin Roosevelt is elected to an unprecedented fourth term as President of the U.
Robinson, who himself wrote a quite different version of the event which occurred in For some years prior, an informal group, including William E. Colby , met annually on Muir's birthday for a memorial at the Muir-Strentzel gravesite in Martinez. A marker of Montello red granite commemorates Muir's role as father of our national parks.
Wilderness Act passes; the John Muir Wilderness Area is established as one of 54 Wilderness Areas On the University of Wisconsin campus, the seven-acre "John Muir Park" is officially dedicated as a natural botanical laboratory not to be disturbed by future university development. Poised between fact and fiction and between history and romance, these texts explore the same dichotomy that Romanticism was most invested in reconciling—the relationship between the real and the imagined.
Certainly, the simultaneously documentary and fantastic elements of travel texts were one of the reasons these works were so prone to plagiarism. As scholars have demonstrated, Romantic writers routinely borrowed from works of travel, and, although contemporary periodical reviewers frequently remarked upon these "plagiarisms," in fact borrowing from travel texts was customary. Whatever an author's individual purpose, these borrowings were authorized by the rhetorical instability of the genre itself, which claimed even its imagined representations as implicitly authorless "records" of objective, documentary fact.
This tension between documentary and literary impulses is clearly evident in Williams's travel journal, which assimilates materials from a range of other writings on the Romantic East. Undeniably, his borrowings are extensive and largely unacknowledged, and yet they need to be read within the context of the more relaxed Romantic attitudes toward appropriation from travel materials, which constituted part of the genre and its popular appeal.
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Edward Ellerker Williams had been lieutenant in the British Army in India, and in his Indian journal he claimed to have recorded the events of March , including a visit to the ancient ruins, mosques, and harems of Delhi, a stay in Shalimar with Charles Metcalfe, big game sport in the jungles of Rhotuk, and phrenological observations on the Eastern races and animal species. Indeed, the edition of Williams's journal presented here marks its first complete publication. The notebook poses several editorial problems. Its current pagination, which predates the Bodleian's acquisition, is especially difficult.
Finally, the absence of six leaves from the notebook appears not to have been noticed. His subject matter shifts quickly and varies widely, ranging from lucid narrative accounts to impossibly elliptical passages. Legibility and syntactical incoherence frequently are problems in the latter part of the manuscript.
There are a number of internal contradictions, especially in regard to dates and other factual information, and, finally, Trelawny's reputation as an untrustworthy narrator is well known.
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The notebook can be considered in four sections. The first section, comprising manuscript pages , contains Edward Williams's Indian travel journal and is the section of the notebook published in the present Romantic Circles edition. The entries are dated early March His narrative includes an account of Delhi's mosques, palaces, and inhabitants, excerpts from Alexander Dow's History of Hindustane London, , a description of Metcalfe's residence at Shalimar and of Lieutenant Fraser's zoological gardens, detailed narratives of hawking and of hunting lions and tigers in Rhotuk, and discussions of comparative anatomy.
Pages are written in a second hand, and they contain the drafts of a poem on lion hunting and an account of a social event, possibly a ball at Mrs. Beauclerc's residence in These entries contain a discussion of the nature of poetry, reading notes from contemporary works of travel literature, thoughts on the English character supplemented by phrenological observations on various human races, and an excerpt from the Courier 's review of Trelawny's Adventures of a Younger Son.
Although the handwriting of the third section is not obviously the same as the earlier script, both can be positively identified as Trelawny's. This final section includes lists of Persian and Hindi vocabulary, two passages identified by William St. Clair as excerpts of letters from Claire Clairmont and Mary Shelley to Trelawny, an account of Percy Shelley's genius, of the events in Italy before Shelley's death, and of Shelley's opinion of the critics and of Leigh Hunt's poetry, some notes on Eastern travels and fragmentary translations from Persian poems, and an extensive account of Mauritius and adventures on the high seas as a privateer.
A typed insert included with the Bodleian manuscript MS 1a mistakenly suggests that Williams's wife, Jane, is the author of the latter sections of the manuscript. The additional reference to "Mrs. Williams" in the third person, in the account of Shelley's fearful vision at Lorenza, seems to exclude Jane particularly.
Trelawny's authorship can be confirmed and Jane's discounted through handwriting comparisons, but Trelawny also provides ample evidence of his personality and prejudices throughout the text. His disdain for bluestockings, for example, is well known, and the sexualized diatribe against rusty spinsters "in want of being used," "libidinous old matrons," and "blues" of all sorts MS certainly doesn't belong to Jane Williams.
In fact, the contents of the latter part of the manuscript are consonant with Trelawny's knowledge and interests, and the entire manuscript seems to have functioned as his draft notebook for what became the Adventures of a Younger Son. Edward Ellerker Williams, then, is the author of the initial section of the manuscript, and Edward John Trelawny is the author of the remainder.
Edward Williams was born in India on 22 April and, apart from a brief education at Eton and a few years of service in the Royal Navy, resided in the East until his retirement at half-pay from the Eighth Dragoons on 28 May Presumably, this notebook is the one referred to by the Williamses and the Shelley circle as the "Indian Journal. Although in September Jane Williams wrote to Mary Shelley asking her to remind Trelawny "to send with my things, Edwards [sic] Indian Journal" Maria Gisborne , he seems to have retained possession of the notebook.
The Bodleian notebook is an important document for biographical and literary studies of the Italian circle in at least two respects. First, its central relationship to the orientalist works published by the minor figures surrounding Percy Shelley and Lord Byron provides a means of assessing the involvement of the Pisan circle in Eastern questions of the day. Second, the origins of Williams's material and the manner in which it is put into use offers a point of inquiry from which to consider the function of the travel journal in Romantic print culture and the environment of literary exchange and appropriation in which both Percy Shelley and Byron composed.
The circulation of Williams's journal and the patterns of assimilation and exchange that it reveals are complex. Williams's own construction of the journal as a scientific account and "documentary" record of Indian hunting practices implicitly authorizes Trelawny's and Medwin's reemployment of his materials within their own self-consciously "literary" projects. Yet, at the same time, the "Sporting Sketches" functions as a highly constructed if not entirely successful work of "fictional" travel narration, which itself borrows freely from other Western accounts of Moghul India in its representations.
Williams's journal problematizes the distinctions between fact and fantasy, popular and literary, and source and product in ways that will prove important for understanding Byron's and Percy Shelley's relationship to travel materials and the representational instability that characterized the genre. In the first instance, Williams seems to have intended for his travel journal to be used as a source of raw material, presenting his text as a simple record of fact, apparently unmediated by literary forms of representation.
In many instances, his narrative engages consciously scientific discourses. For example, there are obviously documentary objectives to his detailed descriptions of natural scenery and sport hunting in Rhotuk, which reference current phrenological literature and record corroborating details. Williams's scientific observations, although brief, are powerful—some notations on the physiognomical differences between the lion and the tiger and several phrenological anecdotes, providing evidence that "established the thickness of a blackfellow's skull and proves Lavater's assertion" MS , Williams's emphasis.
The journal seems to have been composed with an eye toward establishing a "scientific" record of the East, despite the personal nature of the events. Williams may also have been the first person to use this notebook as a source of material, when writing his encyclopedia article on travels in the Near East. The editorial note included with Williams's article, which indicates that the material was extracted from a hunting journal, seems to confirm Jones's suggestion that the two texts are connected, but the Bodleian notebook, unfortunately, does not contain an account of hyena hunting.
Although it cannot be positively established, several factors indicate that the Bodleian manuscript may be Williams's incomplete copy of a more extensive sporting journal. After all, Williams used only a small portion of the notebook, and its contents cover only a brief part of his travels in India. There are few errors and very little evidence of revision. Williams titled each page that he wrote and neatly lined-in headers and margins for twenty-four more pages than he eventually used.
This characterization accurately and quite specifically describes the central narrative of "Sporting Sketches. The possible relationship between these "two" hunting journals is most strongly suggested, however, by the presence of several loose leaves found in the Bodleian notebook, in which Williams describes his hyena-hunting expedition in India. Listed by the Bodleian as MS Shelley adds. This suggests that the Indian journal may have existed, either textually or conceptually, in a more complete form.
Trelawny's section of the notebook is difficult to follow and does not sustain the lucid narrative that characterizes Williams's account, although it participates in the same effort to represent fantasy as simple fact. Although the notebook is interspersed with drafts of poems and personal correspondence, the bulk of Trelawny's journal records his reading notes on contemporary travel narratives and phrenological studies and his own observations on natural history and racial characteristics.
These observations initially take the form of a travel account, but, as Trelawny's journal progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to read the manuscript as the documentary narrative it purports to be. By page , although entries are often given dates or headings, the descriptions do not make any geographical sense, and the chronology becomes impossible.
For example, on 15 September , Trelawny records being in Moscow or perhaps aboard a ship called the "Moscow" ; a paragraph later, he is describing Ceylon and, in succeeding entries, Delhi, the Himalayas, Calcutta, and Guzerat. The next dated entry describes sailing off the coast of Mauritius in , followed by records of Bengal, and then back to Madagascar. Although this part of the manuscript can certainly be dated after Williams's own entries of , Trelawny cites a second date; with this entry it becomes apparent that Trelawny has been using the travel journal as a narrative device.
The population of Mauritius, he records, "in is said to have been only —[it] is now near 80" MS , a clear indication that Trelawny is writing at a date significantly later than Thus, although many of Trelawny's entries read as the present tense observations of a traveler turned naturalist, the section of his journal from pages is more profitably viewed as a series of "observations" written within the fictional framework of a travel journal.
The improbably fantastic events that Trelawny describes soon lead the wary reader to suspect that his observations have only the most casual relationship to historical reality and an intimate relationship to the Adventures of a Younger Son. He records, for instance, being in the privateering service of "Gen. These same events, and the earlier erratic travels all over the East Indies, comprise a condensed version of the plot line of the Adventures. In fact, it seems that the entire final section of Trelawny's journal MS , which contains plot sketches, outlines, and various researches, as well as the fictional travel narrative sequence, was used as a draft notebook for the Adventures.
There are many striking correspondences: Trelawny's vocabulary lists reappear in the mouths of fictional natives, and the fragmentary translations from Persian poetry in the notebook are quoted by the narrator's Eastern lover. In the manuscript, Trelawny even illustrates the orang outang scene that was to appear in the Adventures , sketching a crude dwelling and its inhabitant, with the caption "Orang Outangs dwelling at Borneo Junglee [sic] admee" MS The verbal equivalent of this image appears toward the end of the Adventures , where this native man's dwelling is described as "a shelter under a remarkably thick and beautiful tree covered with white blossoms [ Interspersed with reading notes, working drafts, and reminiscences, the Bodleian notebook reveals the range of personal and textual resources that Trelawny drew upon when composing the Adventures.
However, Trelawny's adoption of Williams's notebook also attests to his willingness to appropriate materials for his project from other places. The Adventures is full of material "borrowed" directly, often word for word, from Williams's travel journal. Trelawny uses Williams's material, it seems, to create verisimilitude for his own conventionally exoticized travel narrative by saturating the text with detailed, documentary observations, implicitly treating the "Sporting Sketches" as a scientific and factual record. The majority of the passages taken from Williams's "Sporting Sketches" describe local customs or natural history; Trelawny reemploys Williams's descriptions of hawking, hunting, and of Delhi's haunted ruins, as well as a number of details concerning local practices.
For example, Trelawny's entire account in the Adventures of lion and tiger hunting in Rhotuk owes a great deal to Williams's journal, as one brief instance can effectively illustrate: Trelawny's narration of the manner in which "De Ruyter, with as much coolness as if he had been pigeon-shooting, put a rifle to its [the lion's] ear, and almost blew its head off" Adventures is immediately recognizable as another version of the lines in which Williams describes how "Fraser with all the coolness that marks his character. Significantly, these borrowed scenes are typically violent, and Trelawny's revisions often make them more graphically brutal.
While the entire Bodleian manuscript was adopted as Trelawny's draft notebook for the Adventures , Thomas Medwin had already used Williams's Indian journal for background material several years earlier, when composing Oswald and Edwin and "Sketches in Hindostan. According to H. Buxton Forman, "one gathers that Medwin's description of a lion hunt in 'Sketches'. If Williams sent such a letter, its contents were intimately connected to the Bodleian journal; Medwin's description of the line formation of the elephants during the hunt, the appearance of the tiger, and the surrounding vegetation, stench, and ruins are all available in Williams's notebook.
For example, where Williams describes "five sporting Elephants with Howdahs. This moment reflects just one of several instances in which Medwin's text becomes a poetic rendition of Williams's journal. This quiet assimilation of Williams's material into Medwin's oriental poetry is later half-acknowledged, when the "Sketches in Hindoostan" are reworked into Medwin's "biographical" travel memoir, The Angler in Wales In this work, Medwin clearly identifies Williams as the source for some of his information on Indian hunting, claiming in one instance that: "It was from Williams's description I wrote, almost in his own words, the following lines" Angler from the "Sketches in Hindoostan.
This inconsistency of attribution is itself suggestive. Acknowledgement of borrowing emerges as more or less incidental, and, significantly, neither the citation nor the concealment of one's travel sources seems to have been at issue in this climate of exchange and appropriation, apparently because as avowedly "documentary" records these travel accounts were viewed more as "materials" than as "texts.
Before the First World War, the family moved to Shiplake , Oxfordshire where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially their daughter Jacintha. When they first met, he was standing on his head in a field. On being asked why, he said, "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up. He said that he might write a book in the style of H.
Wells 's A Modern Utopia. During this period, he also enjoyed shooting, fishing and birdwatching with Jacintha's brother and sister. Aged five, Eric was sent as a day-boy to a convent school in Henley-on-Thames, which Marjorie also attended. It was a Roman Catholic convent run by French Ursuline nuns, who had been exiled from France after religious education was banned in In September , Eric arrived at St Cyprian's. He boarded at the school for the next five years, returning home only for school holidays.
During this period, while working for the Ministry of Pensions, his mother lived at 23 Cromwell Crescent, Earls Court. He knew nothing of the reduced fees, although he "soon recognised that he was from a poorer home". Many years later, as the editor of Horizon , Connolly published several of Orwell's essays.
But inclusion on the Eton scholarship roll did not guarantee a place, and none was immediately available for Blair. He chose to stay at St Cyprian's until December , in case a place at Eton became available. In January, Blair took up the place at Wellington, where he spent the Spring term.
In May a place became available as a King's Scholar at Eton.
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Blair remained at Eton until December , when he left midway between his 18th and 19th birthday. Wellington was "beastly", Orwell told his childhood friend Jacintha Buddicom, but he said he was "interested and happy" at Eton.
Gow , Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge , who also gave him advice later in his career. Steven Runciman , who was at Eton with Blair, noted that he and his contemporaries appreciated Huxley's linguistic flair. Blair's academic performance reports suggest that he neglected his academic studies,  but during his time at Eton he worked with Roger Mynors to produce a College magazine, The Election Times , joined in the production of other publications — College Days and Bubble and Squeak — and participated in the Eton Wall Game.
His parents could not afford to send him to a university without another scholarship, and they concluded from his poor results that he would not be able to win one. Runciman noted that he had a romantic idea about the East ,  and the family decided that Blair should join the Imperial Police , the precursor of the Indian Police Service. For this he had to pass an entrance examination. In December he left Eton and travelled to join his retired father, mother, and younger sister Avril, who that month had moved to 40 Stradbroke Road, Southwold , Suffolk, the first of their four homes in the town.
He passed the entrance exam, coming seventh out of the 26 candidates who exceeded the pass mark. Blair's maternal grandmother lived at Moulmein , so he chose a posting in Burma , then still a province of British India. A month later, he arrived at Rangoon and travelled to the police training school in Mandalay.
He was appointed an Assistant District Superintendent on probation on 29 November ,  with effect from 27 November and at a base salary of Rs. Working as an imperial police officer gave him considerable responsibility while most of his contemporaries were still at university in England. When he was posted farther east in the Delta to Twante as a sub-divisional officer, he was responsible for the security of some , people.
At the end of , he was posted to Syriam , closer to Rangoon. Syriam had the refinery of the Burmah Oil Company , "the surrounding land a barren waste, all vegetation killed off by the fumes of sulphur dioxide pouring out day and night from the stacks of the refinery. She noted his "sense of utter fairness in minutest details". In Burma, Blair acquired a reputation as an outsider. He spent much of his time alone, reading or pursuing non- pukka activities, such as attending the churches of the Karen ethnic group. A colleague, Roger Beadon, recalled in a recording for the BBC that Blair was fast to learn the language and that before he left Burma, "was able to speak fluently with Burmese priests in 'very high-flown Burmese.
This included adopting a pencil moustache , a thin line above the lip he previously had a toothbrush moustache. Emma Larkin writes in the introduction to Burmese Days , "While in Burma, he acquired a moustache similar to those worn by officers of the British regiments stationed there. In April he moved to Moulmein, where his maternal grandmother lived. At the end of that year, he was assigned to Katha in Upper Burma , where he contracted dengue fever in Entitled to a leave in England that year, he was allowed to return in July due to his illness.
While on leave in England and on holiday with his family in Cornwall in September , he reappraised his life. Deciding against returning to Burma, he resigned from the Indian Imperial Police to become a writer, with effect from 12 March after five-and-a-half years of service. In England, he settled back in the family home at Southwold , renewing acquaintance with local friends and attending an Old Etonian dinner.
He visited his old tutor Gow at Cambridge for advice on becoming a writer. He had found a subject. These sorties, explorations, expeditions, tours or immersions were made intermittently over a period of five years. In imitation of Jack London , whose writing he admired particularly The People of the Abyss , Blair started to explore the poorer parts of London. On his first outing he set out to Limehouse Causeway , spending his first night in a common lodging house, possibly George Levy's 'kip'.
For a while he "went native" in his own country, dressing like a tramp , adopting the name P. Burton and making no concessions to middle-class mores and expectations; he recorded his experiences of the low life for use in " The Spike ", his first published essay in English, and in the second half of his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London In early he moved to Paris. He lived in the rue du Pot de Fer, a working class district in the 5th Arrondissement. He began to write novels, including an early version of Burmese Days , but nothing else survives from that period.
His experiences there were the basis of his essay " How the Poor Die ", published in He chose not to identify the hospital, and indeed was deliberately misleading about its location. Shortly afterwards, he had all his money stolen from his lodging house. Whether through necessity or to collect material, he undertook menial jobs such as dishwashing in a fashionable hotel on the rue de Rivoli , which he later described in Down and Out in Paris and London.
In December , after nearly two years in Paris, Blair returned to England and went directly to his parents' house in Southwold , a coastal town in Suffolk , which remained his base for the next five years. The family was well established in the town, and his sister Avril was running a tea-house there. He became acquainted with many local people, including Brenda Salkeld, the clergyman's daughter who worked as a gym-teacher at St Felix Girls' School in the town. Although Salkeld rejected his offer of marriage, she remained a friend and regular correspondent for many years.
He also renewed friendships with older friends, such as Dennis Collings, whose girlfriend Eleanor Jacques was also to play a part in his life. In early he stayed briefly in Bramley, Leeds , with his sister Marjorie and her husband Humphrey Dakin, who was as unappreciative of Blair as when they knew each other as children. Blair was writing reviews for Adelphi and acting as a private tutor to a disabled child at Southwold.
He then became tutor to three young brothers, one of whom, Richard Peters , later became a distinguished academic. There is Blair leading a respectable, outwardly eventless life at his parents' house in Southwold, writing; then in contrast, there is Blair as Burton the name he used in his down-and-out episodes in search of experience in the kips and spikes, in the East End, on the road, and in the hop fields of Kent.
Over the next year he visited them in London, often meeting their friend Max Plowman. He also often stayed at the homes of Ruth Pitter and Richard Rees, where he could "change" for his sporadic tramping expeditions. One of his jobs was domestic work at a lodgings for half a crown two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound a day. Blair now contributed regularly to Adelphi , with " A Hanging " appearing in August From August to September his explorations of poverty continued, and, like the protagonist of A Clergyman's Daughter , he followed the East End tradition of working in the Kent hop fields.
He kept a diary about his experiences there. Afterwards, he lodged in the Tooley Street kip , but could not stand it for long, and with financial help from his parents moved to Windsor Street, where he stayed until Christmas. Mabel Fierz put him in contact with Leonard Moore , who became his literary agent. Eliot , also rejected it. Blair ended the year by deliberately getting himself arrested,  so that he could experience Christmas in prison, but the authorities did not regard his "drunk and disorderly" behaviour as imprisonable, and he returned home to Southwold after two days in a police cell.
This was a small school offering private schooling for children of local tradesmen and shopkeepers, and had only 14 or 16 boys aged between ten and sixteen, and one other master. At the end of the summer term in , Blair returned to Southwold, where his parents had used a legacy to buy their own home. Blair and his sister Avril spent the holidays making the house habitable while he also worked on Burmese Days. He returned to teaching at Hayes and prepared for the publication of his book, now known as Down and Out in Paris and London.
He wished to publish under a different name to avoid any embarrassment to his family over his time as a "tramp". Four days later, he wrote to Moore, suggesting the pseudonyms P. Lewis Allways. This was a much larger establishment with pupils and a full complement of staff. He acquired a motorcycle and took trips through the surrounding countryside.
On one of these expeditions he became soaked and caught a chill that developed into pneumonia. He was taken to Uxbridge Cottage Hospital, where for a time his life was believed to be in danger. When he was discharged in January , he returned to Southwold to convalesce and, supported by his parents, never returned to teaching. He was disappointed when Gollancz turned down Burmese Days , mainly on the grounds of potential suits for libel, but Harper were prepared to publish it in the United States.
Meanwhile, Blair started work on the novel A Clergyman's Daughter , drawing upon his life as a teacher and on life in Southwold. Eleanor Jacques was now married and had gone to Singapore and Brenda Salkeld had left for Ireland, so Blair was relatively isolated in Southwold — working on the allotments , walking alone and spending time with his father.
Eventually in October, after sending A Clergyman's Daughter to Moore, he left for London to take a job that had been found for him by his aunt Nellie Limouzin. This job was as a part-time assistant in Booklovers' Corner, a second-hand bookshop in Hampstead run by Francis and Myfanwy Westrope, who were friends of Nellie Limouzin in the Esperanto movement. The Westropes were friendly and provided him with comfortable accommodation at Warwick Mansions, Pond Street. He was sharing the job with Jon Kimche , who also lived with the Westropes. Blair worked at the shop in the afternoons and had his mornings free to write and his evenings free to socialise.
These experiences provided background for the novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying As well as the various guests of the Westropes, he was able to enjoy the company of Richard Rees and the Adelphi writers and Mabel Fierz. The Westropes and Kimche were members of the Independent Labour Party , although at this time Blair was not seriously politically active.
A Clergyman's Daughter was published on 11 March In early Blair met his future wife Eileen O'Shaughnessy , when his landlady, Rosalind Obermeyer, who was studying for a master's degree in psychology at University College London , invited some of her fellow students to a party. One of these students, Elizaveta Fen, a biographer and future translator of Chekhov , recalled Blair and his friend Richard Rees "draped" at the fireplace, looking, she thought, "moth-eaten and prematurely aged.
In June, Burmese Days was published and Cyril Connolly's review in the New Statesman prompted Blair as he then became known to re-establish contact with his old friend. The relationship was sometimes awkward and Blair and Heppenstall even came to blows, though they remained friends and later worked together on BBC broadcasts. By October his flatmates had moved out and he was struggling to pay the rent on his own. He remained until the end of January , when he stopped working at Booklovers' Corner.
At this time, Victor Gollancz suggested Orwell spend a short time investigating social conditions in economically depressed northern England. Priestley had written about England north of the Trent , sparking an interest in reportage. The depression had also introduced a number of working-class writers from the North of England to the reading public. It was one of these working-class authors, Jack Hilton , whom Orwell sought for advice.
Orwell had written to Hilton seeking lodging and asking for recommendations on his route. Hilton was unable to provide him lodging, but suggested that he travel to Wigan rather than Rochdale, "for there are the colliers and they're good stuff. On 31 January , Orwell set out by public transport and on foot, reaching Manchester via Coventry , Stafford, the Potteries and Macclesfield.
Arriving in Manchester after the banks had closed, he had to stay in a common lodging-house. The next day he picked up a list of contacts sent by Richard Rees. One of these, the trade union official Frank Meade, suggested Wigan , where Orwell spent February staying in dirty lodgings over a tripe shop. At Wigan, he visited many homes to see how people lived, took detailed notes of housing conditions and wages earned, went down Bryn Hall coal mine , and used the local public library to consult public health records and reports on working conditions in mines.
During this time, he was distracted by concerns about style and possible libel in Keep the Aspidistra Flying. He made a quick visit to Liverpool and during March, stayed in south Yorkshire, spending time in Sheffield and Barnsley. As well as visiting mines, including Grimethorpe , and observing social conditions, he attended meetings of the Communist Party and of Oswald Mosley "his speech the usual claptrap — The blame for everything was put upon mysterious international gangs of Jews" where he saw the tactics of the Blackshirts " The first half of the book documents his social investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire , including an evocative description of working life in the coal mines.
The second half is a long essay on his upbringing and the development of his political conscience, which includes an argument for socialism although he goes to lengths to balance the concerns and goals of socialism with the barriers it faced from the movement's own advocates at the time, such as "priggish" and "dull" socialist intellectuals and "proletarian" socialists with little grasp of the actual ideology. Gollancz feared the second half would offend readers and added a disculpatory preface to the book while Orwell was in Spain. Orwell needed somewhere he could concentrate on writing his book, and once again help was provided by Aunt Nellie, who was living at Wallington, Hertfordshire in a very small 16th-century cottage called the "Stores".
Wallington was a tiny village 35 miles north of London, and the cottage had almost no modern facilities. Orwell took over the tenancy and moved in on 2 April Keep the Aspidistra Flying was published by Gollancz on 20 April Orwell's research for The Road to Wigan Pier led to him being placed under surveillance by the Special Branch from , for 12 years, until one year before the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Orwell married Eileen O'Shaughnessy on 9 June Shortly afterwards, the political crisis began in Spain and Orwell followed developments there closely.
At the end of the year, concerned by Francisco Franco 's military uprising supported by Nazi Germany , Fascist Italy and local groups such as Falange , Orwell decided to go to Spain to take part in the Spanish Civil War on the Republican side. Under the erroneous impression that he needed papers from some left-wing organisation to cross the frontier, on John Strachey 's recommendation he applied unsuccessfully to Harry Pollitt , leader of the British Communist Party.
Pollitt was suspicious of Orwell's political reliability; he asked him whether he would undertake to join the International Brigade and advised him to get a safe-conduct from the Spanish Embassy in Paris. The American writer told Orwell that going to fight in the Civil War out of some sense of obligation or guilt was "sheer stupidity" and that the Englishman's ideas "about combating Fascism, defending democracy, etc.
There was very little military action and Orwell was shocked by the lack of munitions, food and firewood as well as other extreme deprivations. The unit was then sent on to Huesca. Meanwhile, back in England, Eileen had been handling the issues relating to the publication of The Road to Wigan Pier before setting out for Spain herself, leaving Nellie Limouzin to look after The Stores. Eileen volunteered for a post in John McNair's office and with the help of Georges Kopp paid visits to her husband, bringing him English tea, chocolate and cigars.
He returned to the front and saw some action in a night attack on the Nationalist trenches where he chased an enemy soldier with a bayonet and bombed an enemy rifle position. In April, Orwell returned to Barcelona. That would soon change. He spent much of the time on a roof, with a stack of novels, but encountered Jon Kimche from his Hampstead days during the stay.
The subsequent campaign of lies and distortion carried out by the Communist press,  in which the POUM was accused of collaborating with the fascists, had a dramatic effect on Orwell. Instead of joining the International Brigades as he had intended, he decided to return to the Aragon Front. Once the May fighting was over, he was approached by a Communist friend who asked if he still intended transferring to the International Brigades. Orwell expressed surprise that they should still want him, because according to the Communist press he was a fascist.
After his return to the front, he was wounded in the throat by a sniper's bullet. He recovered sufficiently to get up and on 27 May was sent on to Tarragona and two days later to a POUM sanatorium in the suburbs of Barcelona. The bullet had missed his main artery by the barest margin and his voice was barely audible. It had been such a clean shot that the wound immediately went through the process of cauterisation.
He received electrotherapy treatment and was declared medically unfit for service. By the middle of June the political situation in Barcelona had deteriorated and the POUM—painted by the pro-Soviet Communists as a Trotskyist organisation—was outlawed and under attack. Orwell and his wife were under threat and had to lie low, [n 5] although they broke cover to try to help Kopp.
Finally with their passports in order, they escaped from Spain by train, diverting to Banyuls-sur-Mer for a short stay before returning to England. Observing events from French Morocco, Orwell wrote that they were "only a by-product of the Russian Trotskyist trials and from the start every kind of lie, including flagrant absurdities, has been circulated in the Communist press. He found his views on the Spanish Civil War out of favour.
Kingsley Martin rejected two of his works and Gollancz was equally cautious. At the same time, the communist Daily Worker was running an attack on The Road to Wigan Pier , taking out of context Orwell writing that "the working classes smell"; a letter to Gollancz from Orwell threatening libel action brought a stop to this. Orwell returned to Wallington, which he found in disarray after his absence.
He acquired goats, a rooster he called Henry Ford and a poodle puppy he called Marx;    and settled down to animal husbandry and writing Homage to Catalonia. There were thoughts of going to India to work on the Pioneer , a newspaper in Lucknow , but by March Orwell's health had deteriorated. He was thought initially to be suffering from tuberculosis and stayed in the sanatorium until September. Connolly brought with him Stephen Spender , a cause of some embarrassment as Orwell had referred to Spender as a "pansy friend" some time earlier. In the latter part of his stay at the clinic, Orwell was able to go for walks in the countryside and study nature.
The novelist L. Myers secretly funded a trip to French Morocco for half a year for Orwell to avoid the English winter and recover his health. Orwell spent time in Wallington and Southwold working on a Dickens essay and it was in June that Orwell's father, Richard Blair, died. At the outbreak of the Second World War , Orwell's wife Eileen started working in the Censorship Department of the Ministry of Information in central London, staying during the week with her family in Greenwich.
Orwell also submitted his name to the Central Register for war work, but nothing transpired. He returned to Wallington, and in late he wrote material for his first collection of essays, Inside the Whale. For the next year he was occupied writing reviews for plays, films and books for The Listener , Time and Tide and New Adelphi. On 29 March his long association with Tribune began  with a review of a sergeant's account of Napoleon 's retreat from Moscow.
At the beginning of , the first edition of Connolly's Horizon appeared, and this provided a new outlet for Orwell's work as well as new literary contacts. It was the time of the Dunkirk evacuation and the death in France of Eileen's brother Lawrence caused her considerable grief and long-term depression. Throughout this period Orwell kept a wartime diary. Orwell was declared "unfit for any kind of military service" by the Medical Board in June, but soon afterwards found an opportunity to become involved in war activities by joining the Home Guard.
His lecture notes for instructing platoon members include advice on street fighting, field fortifications, and the use of mortars of various kinds. Sergeant Orwell managed to recruit Fredric Warburg to his unit. At Wallington he worked on " England Your England " and in London wrote reviews for various periodicals.
Visiting Eileen's family in Greenwich brought him face-to-face with the effects of the Blitz on East London. Eleven volumes eventually appeared, of which Orwell's The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius , published on 19 February , was the first. He also applied unsuccessfully for a job at the Air Ministry. Meanwhile, he was still writing reviews of books and plays and at this time met the novelist Anthony Powell.
One could not have a better example of the moral and emotional shallowness of our time, than the fact that we are now all more or less pro Stalin. This disgusting murderer is temporarily on our side, and so the purges, etc. He supervised cultural broadcasts to India to counter propaganda from Nazi Germany designed to undermine Imperial links.
This was Orwell's first experience of the rigid conformity of life in an office, and it gave him an opportunity to create cultural programmes with contributions from T. Eliot , Dylan Thomas , E. At the end of August he had a dinner with H. Wells which degenerated into a row because Wells had taken offence at observations Orwell made about him in a Horizon article. In October Orwell had a bout of bronchitis and the illness recurred frequently.
David Astor was looking for a provocative contributor for The Observer and invited Orwell to write for him — the first article appearing in March At the BBC, Orwell introduced Voice , a literary programme for his Indian broadcasts, and by now was leading an active social life with literary friends, particularly on the political left.
Late in , he started writing regularly for the left-wing weekly Tribune  :  : directed by Labour MPs Aneurin Bevan and George Strauss. In March Orwell's mother died and around the same time he told Moore he was starting work on a new book, which turned out to be Animal Farm.
Just six days before his last day of service, on 24 November , his adaptation of the fairy tale , Hans Christian Andersen 's The Emperor's New Clothes was broadcast. It was a genre in which he was greatly interested and which appeared on Animal Farm ' s title-page. In November , Orwell was appointed literary editor at Tribune , where his assistant was his old friend Jon Kimche. Orwell was on staff until early , writing over 80 book reviews  and on 3 December started his regular personal column, " As I Please ", usually addressing three or four subjects in each.
By April Animal Farm was ready for publication. Gollancz refused to publish it, considering it an attack on the Soviet regime which was a crucial ally in the war. A similar fate was met from other publishers including T. Eliot at Faber and Faber until Jonathan Cape agreed to take it. In May the Orwells had the opportunity to adopt a child, thanks to the contacts of Eileen's sister Gwen O'Shaughnessy, then a doctor in Newcastle upon Tyne. In June a V-1 flying bomb struck Mortimer Crescent and the Orwells had to find somewhere else to live.
Orwell had to scrabble around in the rubble for his collection of books, which he had finally managed to transfer from Wallington, carting them away in a wheelbarrow. Another bombshell was Cape's reversal of his plan to publish Animal Farm. The decision followed his personal visit to Peter Smollett , an official at the Ministry of Information. Smollett was later identified as a Soviet agent. Orwell had been looking for the opportunity throughout the war, but his failed medical reports prevented him from being allowed anywhere near action.
He went to Paris after the liberation of France and to Cologne once it had been occupied by the Allies. It was while he was there that Eileen went into hospital for a hysterectomy and died under anaesthetic on 29 March She had not given Orwell much notice about this operation because of worries about the cost and because she expected to make a speedy recovery. Orwell returned home for a while and then went back to Europe. He returned finally to London to cover the general election at the beginning of July. Animal Farm had particular resonance in the post-war climate and its worldwide success made Orwell a sought-after figure.
For the next four years, Orwell mixed journalistic work—mainly for Tribune , The Observer and the Manchester Evening News , though he also contributed to many small-circulation political and literary magazines —with writing his best-known work, Nineteen Eighty-Four , which was published in